Sunday, March 29, 2009

Webhosting Compared

The reason we have a usable Internet at all is because there are companies called hosting providers that give websites their virtual "homes" in cyberspace. There are many kinds of hosting services and solutions, with enough flexibility among them for webmasters to customize approaches for their specific needs. Despite this wide range of capabilities, however, hosting providers still offer three common package types - shared hosting, virtual hosting and dedicated hosting - although today leading hosting firms will also offer more personalized packages, often referred to as managed and semi-managed plans.
Understanding the differences among these approaches is just as important as comparing security, service, expertise and cost among the various providers you will consider. Understanding the different types of web hosting packages, in fact, can help you narrow the field of companies from which you will eventually pick a winner. This article will educate you sufficiently (although more study is always better than less) to choose the right hosting package, and perhaps even the right company to implement it for you.
Shared hosting
Companies and individuals making their first foray into the World Wide Web often sign up for the least expensive groups of plans, which would be under the "shared hosting" category. As the name clearly indicates, your website will be "sharing" disk space on a server with 20 or 200 other sites. Part of your agreement includes a commitment to stay within a certain, prescribed percentage of the server's CPU (Central Processing Unit) usage. For family sites, small companies and other limited "rollouts," this is usually not a problem.
In fact, shared hosting schemes were originally designed around certain assumptions about site owners' behavior, many of which turned out to be right on the money. One of the many assumptions that has since become fact is that customers simply do not use all the bandwidth (storage) that they've been allotted in their paid plan. The fact is, many people and firms run small websites whose traffic volume only requires a small fraction of that bandwidth. Every so often, a small site will experience a sudden surge of traffic and data transfers, pushing the website use over the set limit. You will want to plan ahead for this kind of eventuality, as most agreement will give your hosting provider the right to "freeze or seize" the website, at least temporarily.
Virtual private hosting
As opposed to the shared hosting plans, a Virtual Private Server (VPS) will set you up with a Virtual Dedicated Server (VDS). You will still share server space with other sites, but will have your own environment, or partition, on that server. Individual servers are often divided into multiple, discrete (separate) partitions that run their own OS (Operating System) and can be booted up individually. These can be very important features for many firms. Of course, you will still share space on a single physical server, be restricted to a certain proportion of the CPU usage and have a limited amount of disk space and bandwidth because of the other VPS users.
Dedicated hosting
Dedicated hosting is a specialized service that offers the customer such important benefits such as secure, high-quality infrastructure and high-speed connectivity. These costlier hosting packages can be tailored to the unique needs of a customer for bandwidth, storage space and memory, and "renting" an entire server that you do not have to share enables you to run CPU-intensive programs. Your website performance will neither affect other sites nor be disrupted by what others do.
This type of dedicated hosting plan truly is the ideal one for companies with large, complex, media-rich and/or high-traffic sites. The "discrete server" model provides them complete control over the structure, contents and operations of the hosting environment. Not every individual or company needs dedicated hosting, but the ones that do could not make it with lesser hosting packages. Past a certain point of bandwidth, there is no reason to have any other kind of hosting plan.
Managed hosting services
Larger and busier firms often need a more advanced kind of dedicated hosting plan, one that can give them additional technical support and state-of-the-art equipment. These plans will also customize services in such a way as to transfer many important responsibilities to the hosting company. However, IT expertise is still required by the customer, who retains control of the operating system(s), applications and hosting environment. Managed hosting also involves a rather more significant investment of time, effort, expertise, finances and human resources than other hosting plans.
If you opt for managed hosting, you would typically lease dedicated, pre-configured equipment and connectivity from a provider. As the owner of the data center, the provider will maintain the server, the network and any other devices, and is responsible for deploying, monitoring, managing and maintaining the hardware. With contractually defined, shared responsibilities, managed hosting far exceeds basic dedicated hosting in levels of performance, security, scalability and up-time.
Semi-managed and reseller hosting
Another name for semi-managed hosting is root server hosting, a kind of dedicated hosting that lets you control the server through access to the root. This approach produces a variety of benefits, such as improved security, more reliable infrastructure and more proactive hardware maintenance. As it is a semi-managed hosting plan, a hosting provider will maintain and manage the installation and the hardware, while you (the client) will manage the other aspects (backups, software upgrades, etc.). With root access and administrator status, you can do virtually anything on your assigned server.
Reseller hosting is a way for businesses to host sites on behalf of their own customers. If you are reselling hosting services it means that you are making a contract with a hosting provider to sell their services under your own name or brand. There is ample incentive for web hosting firms to do this as it enables them to sell more dedicated hosting space. There are as many different contracts, agreements and ways of doing this as there are hosting companies, and it is certainly not something to be undertaken without planning. However, for some companies it is a powerful addition to the business plan.
The right plan for you
Depending on your needs, you may choose any of the foregoing hosting plans. Or, as many companies do, you may start small and grow into the costlier but more powerful packages. When you know how the hosting plans work, you can do a better job comparing services and costs when you are ready to set up (or expand) your site.

Credits : Amy Armitage

Computer Password Security

Passwords are the keys we use to access personal information that we have stored on our computers and in our online accounts.
If criminals or other malicious users steal this information, they can use our name to open new credit card accounts, apply for a mortgage, or pose as us in online transactions. In many cases we would not notice these attacks until it was too late.
Fortunately, it is not hard to create strong passwords and keep them well protected.

What makes a strong password ?
To an attacker, a strong password should appear to be a random string of characters. The following criteria can help your passwords do so:
Make it lengthy. Each character that you add to your password increases the protection that it provides many times over. Your passwords should be around 8 or more characters in length; 12 characters or longer is ideal.
Many systems also support use of the space bar in passwords, so you can create a phrase made of many words (a "pass phrase"). A pass phrase is often easier to remember than a little password, as well as longer and harder to guess.
Combine letters, numbers, and symbols. The greater variety of characters that you have in your password, the harder it is to guess. Other important specifics include:
• The fewer types of characters in your password, the longer it must be. A 15-character password composed only of random letters and numbers is about 33,000 times stronger than an 8-character password composed of characters from the entire keyboard. If you cannot create a password that contains symbols, you need to make it considerably longer to get the same degree of protection. An ideal password combines both length and different types of symbols.
• Use the entire keyboard, not just the most common characters. Symbols typed by holding down the "Shift" key and typing a number are very common in passwords. Your password will be much stronger if you choose from all the symbols on the keyboard, including punctuation marks not on the upper row of the keyboard, and any symbols unique to your language.
Use words and phrases that are easy to remember, but difficult for others to figure out. The easiest way to remember passwords and pass phrases is to write them down. Contrary to popular belief, there is nothing wrong with writing passwords down, but they need to be adequately protected in order to remain secure and effective.
In general, passwords written on a piece of paper are more difficult to compromise across the Internet than a password manager, Web site, or other software-based storage tool, such as password managers.

Create a strong, memorable password in 6 steps
Use these steps to develop a strong password:
1. Think of a sentence that you can remember. This will be the basis of your strong password or pass phrase. Use a memorable sentence, such as "My cats three years old."
2. Check if the computer or online system supports the pass phrase directly. If you can use a pass phrase (with spaces between characters) on your computer or online system, do so.
3. If the computer or online system does not support pass phrases, convert it to a password. Take the first letter of each word of the sentence that you've created to create a new, nonsensical word. Using the example above, you'd get: "mctyo".
4. Add complexity by mixing uppercase and lowercase letters and numbers. It is valuable to use some letter swapping or misspellings as well. For instance, in the pass phrase above, consider misspelling Aiden's name, or substituting the word "three" for the number 3. There are many possible substitutions, and the longer the sentence, the more complex your password can be. Your pass phrase might become "My cATs THreE YeaRs olD." If the computer or online system will not support a pass phrase, use the same technique on the shorter password. This might yield a password like "McTyo".
5. Finally, substitute some special characters. You can use symbols that look like letters, combine words (remove spaces) and other ways to make the password more complex. Using these tricks, we create a pass phrase of "MycAT i$ 3 yeAR$ old" or a password (using the first letter of each word) "Mci3y0".
6. Test your new password with Password Checker .Password Checker is a non-recording feature on this Web site that helps determine your password's strength as you type.
Password strategies to avoid
Some common methods used to create passwords are easy to guess by criminals. To avoid weak, easy-to-guess passwords:
• Avoid your login name. Any part of your name, birthday, social security number, or similar information for your loved ones constitutes a bad password choice. This is one of the first things criminals will try.
• Avoid dictionary words in any language. Criminals use sophisticated tools that can rapidly guess passwords that are based on words in multiple dictionaries, including words spelled backwards, common misspellings, and substitutions. This includes all sorts of profanity and any word you would not say in front of your kids.
• Use more than one password everywhere. If any one of the computers or online systems using this password is compromised, all of your other information protected by that password should be considered compromised as well. It is critical to use different passwords for different systems.
• Avoid using online storage. If malicious users find these passwords stored online or on a networked computer, they have access to all your information.
The "blank password" option
A blank password (no password at all) on your account is more secure than a weak password such as "1234". Criminals can easily guess a simplistic password, but on computers using Windows XP, an account without a password cannot be accessed remotely by means such as a network or the Internet. (This option is not available for Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows Me, or earlier versions) You can choose to use a blank password on your computer account if these criteria are met:
• You only have one computer or you have several computers but you do not need to access information on one computer from another one
• The computer is physically secure (you trust everyone who has physical access to the computer)
The use of a blank password is not always a good idea. For example, a laptop computer that you take with you is probably not physically secure, so it's better on those to have a strong password.
How to access and change your passwords
Online accounts
Web sites have a variety of policies that govern how you can access your account and change your password. Look for a link (such as "my account") somewhere on the site's home page that goes to a special area of the site that allows password and account management.
Computer passwords
The Help files for your computer operating system will usually provide information about how to create, modify, and access password-protected user accounts, as well as how to require password protection upon startup of your computer. You can also try to find this information online at the software manufacturer's Web site. For example, if you use Microsoft Windows XP, online help can show you how to manage passwords, change passwords, and more.
Keep your passwords secret
Treat your passwords and pass phrases with as much care as the information that they protect.
• Don't reveal them to others.
• Protect any recorded passwords. Be careful where you store the passwords that you record or write down.
• Never provide your password over e-mail or based on an e-mail request. Any e-mail that requests your password or requests that you to go to a Web site to verify your password is almost certainly a fraud.
• Change your passwords regularly. This can help keep criminals and other malicious users unaware.
• Do not type passwords on computers that you do not control. Computers such as those in Internet caf├ęs, computer labs, shared systems, kiosk systems, conferences, and airport lounges should be considered unsafe.
What to do if your password is stolen
Be sure to monitor all the information you protect with your passwords, such as your monthly financial statements, credit reports, online shopping accounts, and so on. Strong, memorable passwords can help protect you against fraud and identity theft, but there are no guarantees. No matter how strong your password is, if someone breaks into the system that stores it, they will have your password. If you notice any suspicious activity that could indicate that someone has accessed your information, notify authorities as quickly as you can. Get more information on what to do if you think your identity has been stolen or you've been similarly defrauded.

CREDITS : David Burton